科学家发现油菜素内酯可以减少杀虫剂残留

http://www.ny100.cn 填加时间:2009-9-17 本文来源:生物谷 【字号:

  J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/jf901915a

  Brassinosteroids Promote Metabolism of Pesticides in Cucumber

  Xiao Jian Xia?, Yun Zhang?, Jing Xue Wu?, Ji Tao Wang?, Yan Hong Zhou?, Kai Shi?, Yun Long Yu§ and Jing Quan Yu*??

  Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan Road 268, Hangzhou 310029, China

  Department of Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China

  Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plants Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Agricultural Ministry of China, Hangzhou 310029, China

  Brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to protect crops from the toxicity of herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. It is shown here that application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) accelerated metabolism of various pesticides and consequently reduced their residual levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L). Chlorpyrifos, a widely used insecticide, caused significant reductions of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) in cucumber leaves. EBR pretreatment alleviated the declines of Pn and ΦPSII caused by chlorpyrifos application, and this effect of EBR was associated with reductions of chlorpyrifos residues. To understand how EBR promotes chlorpyrifos metabolism, the effects of EBR on activity and expression of enzymes involved in pesticide metabolism were analyzed. EBR had a positive effect on the activation of glutathione S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione reductase (GR) after treatment with chlorpyrifos, although the effect on GR was attenuated at later time points when plants were treated with 1 mM chlorpyrifos. In addition, EBR enhanced the expression of P450 and MRP, which encode P450 monooxygenase and ABC-type transporter, respectively. However, the expression of GST was consistently lower than that of plants treated with only chlorpyrifos. Importantly, the stimulatory effect of EBR on pesticide metabolism was also observed for cypermethrin, chlorothalonil, and carbendazim, which was attributed to the enhanced activity and genes involved in pesticide metabolism. The results suggest that BRs may be promising, environmentally friendly, natural substances suitable for wide application to reduce the risks of human and environment exposure to pesticides.

 

  中国科学家报告了一项“有趣”的发现,即给农作物施用一种自然植物激素之后可以帮助植物消除特定杀虫剂的残留。该研究将发表在9月23日美国化学会出版的《农业与食品化学杂志》双周刊上。

  Jing Quan Yu及其同事指出,杀虫剂对于为全世界不断增长的人口提供可持续的食品生产具有关键作用。全世界的农民每年使用250万吨杀虫剂。科学家一直在寻找让粮食作物收获后的杀虫剂残留最小的新方法——然而几乎没有成功。此前的研究提示,称为油菜素内酯(BRs)的植物激素可能成为这个问题的答案。

  这组科学家用一种BR处理黄瓜植株,然后用各种杀虫剂对这些植株进行处理,包括一种广谱商业杀虫剂毒死蜱(CPF)。他们说,BR显著地减少了它们的毒性以及在这些植株上的残留。这组科学家指出,BR可能成为“适用于减少人类及环境接触杀虫剂风险的广泛应用的有前景的、环境友好的自然物质。”他们还说,这类物质看上去不会伤害人或其他动物。(生物谷Bioon.com)

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